He came to India with the purpose of amassing wealth. - 18659446 Under the reign of Mahmud of Ghazni, the region broke away from the Samanid sphere of influence. After several successful battles and campaigns he received the title of “Mallicks Baya” from the Sultan Tughlaq, and was later appointed the Governor of the district of Bihar by the Sultan… Mahmood Ghazni was the son of Abu Mansur Sabuktigin, who was a Turkish slave soldier of the samanid ruler. Although Muhammad did not possess any real power, his empire flourished. During Mahmud's rule, universities were founded to study various subjects such as mathematics, religion, the humanities, and medicine. Read More. Consequently, from Ghazni he proceeded towards Hindustan, but was again rejected by the Diwan-i-Arz at Delhi. Mahmud's mother was the daughter of an Iranian aristocrat from Zabulistan,[8][9] and is therefore known in some sources as Mahmud-i Zavuli ("Mahmud from Zabulistan"). [4] His capital of Ghazni evolved into a significant cultural, commercial, and intellectual centre in the Islamic world, almost rivalling the important city of Baghdad. Somnat temple was destroyed by Mahmood Ghazni. Thus ended the life of Muhammad Ghori, founder of the Muslim empire in Delhi. Sabuktigin died in 997, and was succeeded by his son Ismail as the ruler of the Ghaznavid dynasty. He promoted his son Ahmad, allied with Suleiman ibn Yusuf, to the actual day-to-day running of affairs. Qutab-ud-din Aibak was the founder of the Slave Dynasty and of the Delhi Sultanate. Nasir-Ud-Din Khusrav Shah 10. His title signified that the Muslim Caliph remained the religious leader of the empire despite being the political leader of a vast swath of land, encompassing much of what is now Iran, Turkmenistan , Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan , Afghanistan, Pakistan , and northern India. [49], Medieval illustration of Mahmud and his court, Ghaznavid campaigns in Indian Subcontinent, Homa Katouzian, "Iranian history and politics", Published by Routledge, 2003. p. 128: ", C.E.Bosworth, "The Ghaznavids: 994–1040", Edinburgh University Press, 1963; p.4, I. H. Qureshi et al., A Short History of Pakistan (Karachi Division (Pakistan): University of Karachi, 2000), p.246-247), Learn how and when to remove this template message, Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent, "Review of Romila Thapar's "Somanatha, The Many Voices of a History, "Chapter 2 – The Idol-Breaker – Mahmud of Ghazni – 997–1030 A.D.", The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. However the Gurkhan of Qara Khitai and Sultan Usman Khan Samarqandi who had come for the assistance of Muhammad Khwarazm Shah, obstructed his passage. After the death of his master, he came to rule Sind. [3] Mas'ud then marched towards Ghazni, where he defeated Muhammad and had him imprisoned, while crowning himself as the new Sultan of the Ghaznavid Empire. In 1195, Muhammad Ghori, the Afghan invader from Ghazni, made Aibak his viceroy of India. The Calipha of Baghdad, Al Qadirbilla, recognized Ghazni Muhammad with in one year of his rule. He wanted to fight against the idol worshippers and destroy the temple towns, and thus earn merit. 3. Mahmud of Ghazni (971-1030) was the first sultan of the Ghaznavid dynasty in Afghanistan. His father, Sabuktigin, was a Turkic slave commander who laid foundations to the Ghaznavid dynasty in Ghazni in 977, which he ruled as a subordinate of the Samanids, who ruled Khorasan and Transoxiana. Mohammed was born along with his elder twin brother Mas'ud in 998 at the Ghaznavid capital of Ghazni. A zealous Sunni Moslem, he plundered wealthy India and used the booty to patronize culture in Ghazni, making it the center of Perso-Islamic civilization. He ascended the throne upon the death of his father Mahmud in 1030. Both were enterprising soldiers and invaded India time and again. He realized that India was divided and that he would not have to face any tough resistance. In 998AD Mahmood took control of the Ghazni … The booty brought back to Ghazni was enormous, and contemporary historians (e.g. 2. [6], Muhammad fled with his army in the face of Maw'dud's invasion, losing Ghazni in the process. In 994 Mahmud joined his father Sabuktigin in the capture of Khorasan from the rebel Fa'iq in aid of the Samanid Emir, Nuh II. The Indian kingdoms of Nagarkot, Thanesar, Kannauj, and Gwalior were all conquered and left in the hands of Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist kings as vassal states and he was pragmatic enough not to neglect making alliances and enlisting local peoples into his armies at all ranks. Following Mahmud's recognition by the Abbasid caliphate in 999, he pledged a jihad and a raid on India every year. Mahmud of Ghazni (Persian: محمود غزنوی‎; 2 November 971 – 30 April 1030) was the first independent ruler of the Turkic[1][2] dynasty of Ghaznavids, ruling from 999 to 1030. Please help improve this article if you can. Others came to study in India’s established universities. In 1017, when Sultan Mahmud invaded Khwarizm, he took several scholars and poets back to his capital, Ghazni. He belonged to the Khalji tribe of Ghaur in the province of Garmsir. He came back in 1192 and defeated Raj Chauhan in the second battle of Tarain. Sultan Iltutmish 5. After the death of his master, he came to rule Sind. For four hundred years (600-1000 A.D.) India invited conquest; and at last it came.” “In the year 997 a Turkish chieftain by the name of Mahmud became sultan of the little state of Ghazni, in eastern Afghanistan. Muslim fighters came from everywhere to partake in this ‘jihad.’ Qasim was suddenly recalled and executed (possibly by being sown in an animal’s hide) for supposedly violating 2 Sindhi princesses destined for the caliph’s harem!! Later on, when the Ghaznavid Dynasty rose to power, Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (r. 999-1030 CE) made his several ferocious raids into India in the early 11th century CE which g… [39], A. V. Williams Jackson, Professor of Indo-Iranian Languages in Columbia University has written in his book History of India, "Mahmud vowed that every year he would wage a Holy War against the infidels of Hindustan"[40]. [46] Most of the time he was suspicious of his ministers, particularly of the wazir, and the following words are widely believed to be his: "wazirs are the enemies of kings..."[47] Sultan Mahmud had numerous spies (called mushrifs) across his empire, supervised by the special department within his diwan. The next year, he captured Somnath and marched to Kachch against Bhima I. He transformed Ghazni, the first centre of Persian literature,[41] into one of the leading cities of Central Asia, patronizing scholars, establishing colleges, laying out gardens, and building mosques, palaces, and caravansaries. Ferdowsi reads the poem, the Shahnameh, to Mahmud of Ghazni by painter Vardges Sureniants. Mahmud knew that his throne was young and poor, and saw that India, across the border, was old and rich; the conclusion was obvious. There are various stories in medieval texts describing the lack of interest shown by Mahmud to Ferdowsi and his life's work. On 28 November 1001, his army fought and defeated the army of Raja Jayapala of the Kabul Shahis at the Battle of Peshawar. He came to the court of Sultan Muizzuddin at Ghazni and applied for enrolment in the Diwan-i-Arz (Military Department), but he was rejected. Mahmood Ghazni was the son of Abu Mansur Sabuktigin, who was a Turkish slave soldier of the samanid ruler. He came to India with the purpose of amassing wealth. The conquest of Somnath was followed by a punitive invasion of Anhilwara. [43] In addition, the Pakistan Military Academy, where cadets are trained to become officers of the Pakistan Army, also gives tribute to Mahmud of Ghazni by naming one of its twelve companies Ghaznavi Company. The outstanding work on Mahmud and his times is Clifford Edmund Bosworth, The Ghaznavids: Their Empire in Afghanistan and Eastern Iran, 994-1040 (1963). Moreover, they welcomed Mas'ud as their new leader. He ascended the thro… 2. Furthermore, Yusuf ibn Sabuktigin and Ali ibn Il-Arslan including the rest Ghaznavid army of also joined Mas'ud. […] 1012: Demands and receives remainder of the province of Khorasan from the Abassid Caliph. [4] Soon, however, Muhammad's slave troops (ghulam) railed under Abu'l-Najm Ayaz, who had openly changed his allegiance to Muhammad's brother Mas'ud, whose military campaigns in western Iran had earned him a great reputation. Mahmud of Ghazni (Nov. 2, 971–April 30, 1030), the first ruler in history to assume the title of "sultan," founded the Ghaznavid Empire. Qutab-ud-din Aibak took over the Indian territories of the Ghazni empire after Ghori's assassination in 1206. He became the Sultan of Ghazni in998.He came to South India seventeen times and went back to Ghazni every time with a great victory. During his rule, he invaded and plundered the richest cities and temple towns in medieval India seventeen times, and used the booty to build his capital in Ghazni. During this period, the Samanid Empire became highly unstable, with shifting internal political tides as various factions vied for control, the chief among them being Abu'l-Qasim Simjuri, Fa'iq, Abu Ali[citation needed], the General Bekhtuzin as well as the neighbouring Buyid dynasty and Kara-Khanid Khanate. Fill in the blanks: a) Sultan Muhammad Ghori was the ruler of . Mahmud of Ghazni was one of the greatest Muslim rulers of Asia. Although his raids carried his forces across the Indian subcontinent, only a portion of the Punjab and of Sindh in modern-day Pakistan came under his semi-permanent rule; Kashmir, the Doab, Rajasthan, and Gujarat remained under the control of the local Hindu dynasties. Nine years later he was reinstated for a year before being slain by his nephew Maw'dud. Ghazni was a small kingdom in Afghanistan, which was founded by a Turkish nobleman in the tenth century. [15] From there he decided to focus on Hindustan to the southeast, particularly the highly fertile lands of the Punjab region. A superior biography is Muhammad Nazim, The Life and Times of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna (1931). In 998AD Mahmood took control of the Ghazni … He encamped with his army at the place of "Nakiya-abaad/Nakbat-abaad" for a month. … (a) Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (b) Muhammad-bin-Qasim (c) Muhammad Ghuri (d) None of these 27. His death in AD 1206 did not mean the withdrawal of the Turkish interests in India. Mahmud patronized the notable poet Ferdowsi, who after laboring 27 years, went to Ghazni and presented the Shahnameh to him. In 1025 Mahmud raided Gujarat, plundering the Somnath temple and breaking its jyotirlinga. How were their motives for invading India different from each other? INTEXT QUESTIONS 9.1 1. According to Ferishta, his reign lasted only 50 days before he was blinded and imprisoned on the order of Ma'sud I. (a) Mahmud of Ghazni (b) Muhammad-bin-Qasim (c) Muhammad Ghuri Many of Ghori's generals were slain in the following battle and Ghori was compelled to retire towards Balkh. 1. In 1040, at the Battle of Dandanaqan, they decisively defeated Mahmud's son, Mas'ud I, resulting in Mas'ud abandoning most of his western territories to the Seljuks. Muhammad Ghori's Rise to Power Muhammad Ghori came to power only after he re-captured the city of Ghazna from the Oghuz Turks. Qubacha was a slave under Muhammad bin Sam just as Iltutmash and Taj ud din Yildiz were. 1030: Death of Sultan Mahmood Ghazni: 1035: Ali Makhdum Hajweri popularly known as Hazrat Data Ganj Bakhsh came to India with Sultan Masud of Ghazni. He realized that India was divided and that he would not have to face any tough resistance. He was the younger brother of Ghiasuddin and son of Sultan Bahaudin Suri of Ghure. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mahmud_of_Ghazni&oldid=994675269, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2008, Articles needing additional references from September 2015, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn, 994: Gains the title of Saif ad-Dawla and becomes Governor of Khorasan under service to Nuh, 995: The Samanid rebels Fa'iq (leader of a court faction that had defeated Alptigin's nomination for Emir) and Abu Ali expel Mahmud from, 1005-6: Multan: Fateh Daud, the Ismaili ruler of Multan, 1005: Defends Balkh and Khorasan against Nasr, 1008: Mahmud defeats the Indian Confederacy (. He was the first Muslim ruler to conquer Delhi and establish a Muslim rule in India. This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. In 1018 he attacked Mathura and defeated a coalition of rulers there while also killing a ruler called Chandrapala. Mahmud of Ghazni Mahmud of Ghazni (971-1030) was the first sultan of the Ghaznavid dynasty in Afghanistan. In 1021 Mahmud supported the Kannauj king against Chandela Ganda, who was defeated. Mahmud initiated the first of numerous invasions of North India. Ibn Battutah, the North African Arab traveler, came India during Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq’s period and he had written the detailed description of the Muhammad’s kingdom. [35] In 1005 Mahmud conducted a series of campaigns during which the Ismailis of Multan were massacred. Muhammad’s early career began with the conquest of Ghazni in 1173. He ascended the thro… Abbasid Empire disintegrated into a number of independent states ruled by Turks. [6] Maw'dud wintered in Ghazni,[6] then met Muhammad's army 19 March 1041 in the province of Nangrahar. Hello! On the way back to Ghazni, he was assassinated by Ghakkars while resting in his camp near the village of Dhamiak in 1206. [26], Historians including Thapar, Eaton, and A. K. Majumdar have questioned the iconoclastic historiography of this incident. Jalal-Ud-Din Firozshah Khalji 7. Sultan Mahmud died on 30 April 1030. | Muhammad Ghori, Medieval History of India Muhammad Ghori was among the second invaders from Central Asia who invaded India after Mahmud of Ghazni in the 12th century. [8], https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Muhammad_of_Ghazni&oldid=994879398, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Persian-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 00:42. [37], Mahmud used his plundered wealth to finance his armies which included mercenaries. End of Ghazni’s rule in India. His son Anandapala succeeded him and continued the struggle to avenge his father's suicide. After several successful battles and campaigns he received the title of “Mallicks Baya” from the Sultan Tughlaq, and was later appointed the Governor of the district of Bihar by the Sultan… 1008, Mohammad married the daughter of the Farighunid ruler Abu'l-Nasr Muhammad. Mahmud of Ghazni attacked and plundered Kangra, Thaneswar, Mathura, Kanauj and Somnath. A zealous Sunni Moslem, he plundered wealthy India and used the booty to patronize culture in Ghazni, making it the center of Perso-Islamic civilization. Lakhbaksh means ‘giver of lakhs’. He died on April 30, 1030, and his tomb at Ghazni has survived. At the time of his death, his kingdom had been transformed into an extensive military empire, which extended from northwestern Iran proper to the Punjab in the Indian subcontinent, Khwarazm in Transoxiana, and Makran. 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sultan muhammad ghazni came from